Land Surveying Equipment That Are Essential for Surveys
Land surveys are fundamental for the design and construction of particular aspects like roads, buildings, etc. Surveys are conducted to mark boundaries, map the topography of land, create elevations for buildings to ward off floods, to ascertain that buildings have been constructed as per particular recommendations, to map river bottoms for dredging, layout photo control for aerial photography, map the layout of tunnels, airports, etc.
All land surveying activities must be done accurately to achieve the best results. Surveyors require special equipment to execute their tasks and they may include the following:
GPS equipment- It is used to take variations in height between two points, their distance and directions by contacting the satellite.
Tripod equipment- Tripods are used to support surveying instruments such as theodolites, total stations, levels or transits. They should be unwavering while in use because a slight change in position requires the repeat of a survey. Tripod equipment can get waterlogged and produce inaccurate results, so their material should be carefully selected.
Measurement equipment- The most common of them all is the measuring wheel. The wheel is rolled along the desired measurement and its revolution counted by an odometer which is usually attached to it.
Theodolites- They are used to determine horizontal and vertical angles, elevation and height.
Laser levels- They give off beams of laser light that is used to determine elevation. They are different based on the various tasks necessary during construction. They are either self-level or manual. Self-level lasers find their own levels independently, while manual lasers require being adjusted while in use.
Laser receivers- They are used together with laser levels to work on greater spaces that require being assessed. They pick up the beams of light from the laser levels and make a sound once the right level has been achieved. They are helpful to make the use of laser levels outside and on very sunny days easier.
Single or dual grade lasers- They are used in the evaluation of slopes. Single grade lasers calculate gradients for single planes, while dual grade lasers determine the gradient of two planes at the same time.
The rotating lasers produce a beam of light from a beacon to assess an area over 360 degrees, while straight line lasers are utilized to produce crosses or plumb lines.
Pipe lasers- They are used during the installation of new pipes, drains or sewers. Pipe lasers are used to align pipes and grade them in line with each other, one after the other.